In both developed and developing countries, the creation of no take zones in MPAs can cause conflicts with local communities as fishermen feel that they are not longer able to access the resources that they have been fishing for ages as it has happened in many countries in the world. However, when MPAs are combined with TURFs (area-based fishing rights), both measures together can have a cumulative impact on the area, helping to recover ecosystem, stocks and communities. Well-designed TURFs have appropriate controls on fishing mortality and hold fishermen accountable to comply with these controls and are normally allocated to and managed by an organized group of fishermen (Cooperative) (EDF 2018). However, it is necessary to have a sound previous knowledge about the community to be sure that these area-based rights are given to the right groups and no new conflicts are created inside the community. Ideally, TURFs design needs to be driven by local communities with the support of local governements and other external agencies if necessary.
See the video from ONG Rare below:
EDF 2018. RBM Basics. Territorial Use Rights for Fishing (TURF) Programs. Available at: http://fisherysolutionscenter.edf.org/catch-share-basics/turfs
RARE 2016. Restoring our Oceans: How TURF+Reserves Help Fishing Communities. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?list=PLgbKIQiViiuImDBsVZQgqYVWF5KjqFSEX&time_continue=3&v=qbBDsenO2SE